How the Keto Diet Went from Arctic Staple to Bro-Science


♪♪♪ By now, you’ve probably heard of the keto
diet. You might even know someone who swears by
it. The keto, or ketogenic diet, involves eating
lots of fat and very few carbohydrates. Think steak, bacon, and pork chops, day in
and day out. It might sound like a heart attack waiting
to happen, but proponents say the keto diet is great for everything from weight loss to
brain health. Some of its claims are backed by evidence. The rest? Not so much. One thing is for sure: the diet is nothing
new. People have been surviving on high-fat, low-carb
diets for centuries. In 1879, Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka and
17 companions set out across the Arctic tundra. They were in search of a British naval mission
that had disappeared roughly 30 years earlier while searching for the Northwest Passage. All they brought was a month’s worth of
food and ammunition for their hunting rifles. Food is heavy, and the plan was to live off
the land. One year later, the expedition returned. All 18 people and 44 dogs survived, despite
the fact that they had covered more than 3,000 miles on foot on a meat-only diet. How was this possible? A meat-only diet was unfamiliar to most Europeans
at the time, but for the three Inuit families who traveled with Schwatka, it was part of
their way of life. Because little vegetation grows in the frigid
temperatures of their native range, the traditional Inuit diet is very low in vegetables and other agricultural products, which means the Inuit consume few carbohydrates. Instead, they traditionally rely mostly on
the fatty meat from what they hunt and fish. The Inuit guides on the Schwatka expedition showed the crew how they could thrive by eating almost exclusively reindeer and other Arctic critters. It wasn’t easy at first, but eventually
the crew adapted to the new diet. Schwatka wrote in his diary that eating nothing
but reindeer meat initially caused them to feel weakness and fatigue. But everyone adjusted in two to three weeks. 26 years later, this ultra-high-fat diet found
its way into the scientific literature when the Harvard-trained anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson went to live with the Inuit and study their culture. Starting in 1907, Stefansson lived the next
decade of his life between European and Inuit settlements and wrote extensively about his
experience. One main theme was the fact that the Inuit
— and Stefansson himself — survived on only meat and fish. This was around the time that the first vitamins
were being discovered and nutrition science was just beginning to take hold. And Stefansson’s claims of remaining healthy
on a high-fat, virtually-no-carb diet seemed to fly in the face of that new science. So Stefansson agreed to recreate the diet
under laboratory conditions. In 1929, he and a colleague from his explorations
ate a 100% meat-and-fat diet for a full calendar year, all the while undergoing frequent tests to
ensure they were sticking to the diet. The results? They both finished the year in good health,
without any signs of scurvy or other vitamin deficiencies. Around the same time, another branch of science
was toying with the idea of cutting carbs. In the 1910s and 20s, scientists studied the
practice of fasting going without food for anywhere from a day to weeks at a time specifically as part of a therapy to treat seizures. Several crucial observations, made in multiple studies published in 1921, found that not only was fasting effective at treating epilepsy, but that a specific kind of diet could produce the same effect. This led to the development of the ketogenic
diet. Doctors found that either starving or on a
very high-fat diet, chemicals called ketone bodies could be detected in patients’ blood
— a metabolic state known as ketosis — and that this diet could help manage seizures
as well as fasting could. Since the diet was designed to produce those
ketone bodies, it was dubbed the “ketogenic diet.” In a time before modern anti-epileptic medications
were available, this diet was a game-changer. In one textbook, a physician at Johns Hopkins
Hospital reported that of 1,000 children on the diet, 52% had complete control of their
seizures, and another 27% had improved control. So what’s going on? What links starvation, seizures, and ketone
bodies in the blood? Well, it turns out that a body without carbs
has a backup plan. To survive, your body usually requires glucose, most of which you get from carbohydrates in foods like bread, pasta, potatoes, and fruit. Your brain is the biggest consumer of this
sugary fuel. It accounts for 20% of your body’s total
energy expenditure, and half of that needs to come from glucose. But when you run out of carbs, your brain
doesn’t just shut down. Instead, it switches to another fuel source. Usually, that fuel source is fat. When it’s used up most of the available
carbs, your liver starts to break down fat — either from your diet or from its own
fat stores — into fatty acids, which are broken down further into a usable fuel known as ketone bodies, or ketones. At this point, you’re in ketosis. That’s the state where your body is running
on ketones instead of glucose. Ketones are water-soluble molecules that contain a double bond between a carbon atom and an oxygen atom. There are three types of ketones present in
ketosis: beta-hydroxybutyrate, or BHB; acetoacetate; and acetone. When fat breaks down, those ketones are released into the bloodstream where they travel to your brain and vital organs and into the mitochondria in their cells to be used as fuel. And though they’re not your body’s first
choice for energy, ketones are a fantastic fuel. Gram for gram, they’re actually more efficient than glucose. So that answers one question: When Arctic
explorers live on a meat-only diet, their bodies stop relying on glucose for fuel and start breaking down fat for its energy-giving ketones. And as Schwatka learned back in the 1800s, it can take a few grueling weeks for your body to fully adapt to this process. But once it has, it’s pretty smooth sailing. But as to why ketosis reduces seizures? Scientists have several hypotheses, including changes in the brain’s energy production or the balance of neurotransmitters like GABA and norepinephrine. GABA has roles in motor control, among other things; and norepinephrine is a stress hormone that also plays a role in attention and emotion. But scienctists are still figuring all that
out. Yet keto shows a lot of promise in treating
other neurological conditions, too. One study published in 2012 showed that for 23 elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment, six weeks on a keto diet was associated with improved verbal memory. Another study of 152 Alzheimer’s patients
in 2009 found that those on the keto diet demonstrated cognitive improvement after three months. And a very small 2005 study of seven patients with Parkinson’s disease found that the keto diet was associated with significant
improvement in their physical symptoms. Even more interesting, some patients might
not need to stay on a keto diet forever to reap the benefits. A 2009 review in Neurotherapeutics noted that even when patients stop the diet after a few months, some still experience improvement in their epileptic symptoms. Ok, but what about all the /other/ benefits? Keto evangelists claim that the diet helps
otherwise healthy people lose weight, boost athletic performance, and sharpen their minds. Is that true? The reasoning behind keto’s purported weight-loss
magic comes down to something called the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. It says that a diet high in carbs makes your
pancreas secrete more insulin, which makes your body store fat instead of breaking it down for energy, ultimately leading to weight gain. This idea goes all the way back to the 1970s with Dr. Robert Atkins, who popularized his high-fat, high-protein, low-carb Atkins diet, calling it a “high-calorie way to stay thin forever.” The problem is that this is a hypothesis — one that made testable predictions, which have been tested and found wanting by the scientific community. Some experts still argue for it, but many
think this model’s time has come. A 2017 review of the idea concluded that not only is experimental evidence for the carbohydrate-insulin model lacking, but recent studies directly
contradict it. The keto diet just hasn’t been shown to
be any better than any other diet at helping people lose weight. In studies that put people on different diets
of different macronutrient ratios that is, different amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and fat many find that people lose the same amount of weight, regardless of the diet. Low-carb diets might make you think you’re
losing weight quickly because stored carbs in your body bind to water, so losing those
comes with a reduction in water weight. Eating fat also slows down your digestion,
which could make you feel fuller on the diet. But both of these effects seem to disappear over the long term. That’s partially because one of the biggest
factors that determines weight-loss success is whether you stick to your diet, and any diet that requires you to cut out an entire food group is really hard to stick to. So if it’s weight loss you’re after, we’ve
got nothing but bad news. But as for athletic performance? For that, the keto diet has some tricks up
its sleeve… depending on the sport you’re talking about. For a study published in 1983, cyclists were
put on a super high-fat diet. Once they had been on the diet for a few weeks long enough for their bodies to adapt to burning fat the cyclists pedaled at a moderate pace until they couldn’t pedal any more. It turns out that their endurance and aerobic capacity were nearly identical to what they were at the start of the experiment. That’s great news, since fueling mid-exercise can pose a big problem for endurance athletes especially those who compete in multi-hour events like ultramarathons. If an athlete could maintain the same endurance by using their body’s fat stores for fuel as they did by using carbohydrate, they wouldn’t have to worry about bringing all that fuel with them and choking it down mid-race. But there’s one problem: that 1983 study
showed that while the cyclists’ endurance was unchanged, they weren’t as good at picking
up the pace for short sprints. That’s because steady endurance exercise
can use either glucose or fat for fuel, while high-intensity exercise requires glucose. Once you’re adapted to a keto diet, you
don’t only have less glucose to use for fuel; your body is actually worse at using
it in the first place. In the end, if you’re a slow-and-steady
athlete, keto might help. But if you’re someone who needs bursts of
power, it might do more harm than good. There’s no such thing as a one-size-fits-all
diet, keto least of all, but research suggests it has its place. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow. We couldn’t do what we do here, including
cutting through all the questionable science around fad diets and nutrition, without the help of our community of Patreon supporters. If you’re interested in learning more, head
on over to patreon.com/scishow. ♪♪♪

100 Comments

  1. This video gave me gout. Lol

  2. I know the keto diet helped me lose weight.

  3. If your fat and force your body to burn your fat stores you will lose weight. Eat less calories than you burn and boom weight loss directly from fat. Your body wont need to do extra work burning off glucose and carbs.

  4. If you guys go watch a few videos made by Dr Berg and Dr Ken here on YouTube, you would see the science behind it and why it is not broscience as you call it.

    Also, the Keto diet is not a meat only diet, it consists of meats, veggies, and nuts. The meat only diet is known as Carnivore diet (yes, this is a thing).

    For those thinking about going into the Keto diet, this video wouldn't be for you. Go check out Dr. Berg and Dr. Ken (actual MDs).

  5. This is the first thing that you've messed up your analysis. Low carb means low starch and sugar derived carbs. Fiber is still part of the dietary intake and KETO is not just meat. Why didn't you mention that your body will produce all of the glucose you need? The only cells that won't use ketones are those without mitochondria, like red blood cells. God, so much bad information in this one.

  6. Meat only diet is not keto. Keto is low carb, high fat, moderate protein.

  7. This is a great concise video on some of the history of ketogenic diets. However, the interesting thing again, is this idea that weight loss cannot be maintained on a keto diet. This is actually not the case, and there are many studies on that as well. Further, studies that have compared diets have quite a bit of methodological flawas. They also show comparative results in the weight loss department – but don't all discuss the improvements in metabolic markers in the end. A glaring methodolocical flaw, is comparing weight loss and control, without maintaining strict/ correct parameters for "keto" through the duration of the study.

    An example of looking at weight control under the hood, is the ketogenic diet's impact on hunger related to physiological changes in circulating leptin and ghrelin hormomes. These greatly stabilize on a ketogenic diet – essentially, leaving you more satisfied and not craving. The other thing that is not discussed in this video, is the improvement in many other metabolic factors that are also related to weight loss and control, such as – hsCRP levels, insulin, blood glucose and HbA1c, waist circumference, blood pressure, reductions in triglycerides, and increased HDL levels. LDL in some people increase but usually they are the larger particles, as opposed to the small dense artherogenic particles involved with cardiovascular diseases. All these things matter in weight loss and maintenance and they work behind the scenes. for example— how can you maintain a positive desire for weight loss if your MD tells you after 1year, that your blood pressure is high, and hbA1c level is prediabetic? the ketogenic diet is very well known for reducing both those issues! And as such – most people are motivated to continue with their weight maintenance journey.

    The most compelling thing is about motivation. Many many studies on this have shown that people just more motivated to do something about their weight when they see results. That is one of the quickest things the keto diet will do due to the initial water losses – but this does not mean its only water. No, biochemically, fats will also be burned and yes you will lose adipose tissue. So ultimately – seeing the results is quite motivating and enough for most people to keep doing it. No other diet can really do that as functionally well as this one and continue to maintain good blood markers.

    Further, once adapted to this way of utilizing ketones and glucose dynamically in the body, human physiology is primed for fuel partitioning as per food availability. With the decopuling to sugar and carb addiction – the human body can start to utilize proper food sources in an effective manner. So, yes you can transition to a lower carb diet of healthy carbs (whole plants, not garbage cookies and cakes), and you will still be able to maintain your weight. Again, the diet is controlled during the initial burn in to let the body adapt – after which some carbs can be added. This part has to be individualized as some people handle carbs differently from others as part of their genetic makeup.

    Ultimately, though this is a good video – it omits some key components regarding the longevity of wt control compared to other diets. Yes weight loss can be similar – but in terms of nutrient density of the ketogenic diet, and metabolic markers exclusive of weight control, the ketogenic diet tends to do better – -and who knows, longer trials may shown severe reductions in carb addiction via changes in brain chemistry.

    All diets have to be monitored as they tend to affect people in unique ways. And yes, different diets can work for different people. However, overarchingly, this diet affects both brain chemistry and metabolism in many beneficial ways. And yes, glucose and its requirement for HIIT and short burst anaerobic activity, is absolutely essential. Fats are not utilized well for that. so Agreed – glucose has its place in those activities. But the issue with exogenous glucose (in the forms of sugar and its many iterations) is that its addictive properties have been vastly exploited by the food and drug industries – causing insidious changes in brain chemistry as well as subsequent metabolic derangements.

    Exogenous glucose is fine – but how much can you handle before addiction sets in?

    I'll choose a low carb high fat diet any day, and if I'm doing HIIT aerobic training, I'll add in some additional healthy carbs like fruit/ and potatoes. (till those are fully GMO'd to have an increased glycemic load for sales purposes…then I'll have to go full carnivore)

  8. This comment section is toxic and full of stupid. From my perspective this was a poor quality video overall. I’ve come to expect better from SciShow. Some decent facts tossed with questionable choices particularly in the language.

  9. Good breakdown with minimal subjectivism!

  10. Honestly, the only reason why I avoided the keto diet is because of the excessive amounts of meat. Processed and red meat is terrible for not only your risk of cancer (raising the risk by 1% per year), but terrible for animals and the environment. I’m no vegan or PETA person, but that’s just what I read. Yet I can see why it works. Not only is it forcing your body to start adapting to burning body fat, but you also have to cut out most things that you’re typically told to in order to lose weight and get healthier, such as processed carbs and junk food. It’s no wonder why you start out fatigued with lack of energy, but also why your health raises. You’re cutting out most processed foods, and ingesting more proteins. Maybe a more balanced diet for the average person could be a good idea, or consulting a doctor before you do it. Just for safety.

  11. What he is saying eat a balanced diet. Don't over eat carbs so your body doesn't have to store them as fat.

  12. One of the best unbiased videos on Keto I have seen

  13. The carnivore diet is a type of keto diet.

  14. you missed on this one. i have lost 6" on my waist size, no long slightly diabetic, and my mind is sharper and my mood enhanced. the diet is for me to follow because it's almost identical to the way i ate before i retired 15+ years ago. keto and intermittent fasting work for me since it's the way i ate for most of my life. i ate a few more carbs then but other than that it's natural for me.

  15. Keto and fasting saved me.
    Reduced my medication and about to get approval to get off of it soon.

  16. Generally good video, except that it is not high fat but healthy fat. Next time bring more up-to-date studies, they exist.

  17. Lost 50lbs in 5 months with keto. Now on a mid carb diet sustained weight.

  18. And when you're type 1 diabetic ketones can kill you, yay! (2 trips to the hospital this summer for DKA)

  19. This video is about carnivore diet not just keto. If they couldn't even research that right, I don't trust it.

  20. I lost 12 Kg with keto diet:)

  21. You just missed the whole point of why keto works, athletes or not metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance is simply cured and reversed on a proper keto diet.

    Weight loss? The water loss are only temporary and is normal with a high carbs body. In 2 weeks the water loss normalised when the body reached homeostasis. Why did you lose water upon starting keto diet? IT’S THE INSULIN, INSULIN ABSORBS WATER…. water loss is not the weight loss on keto. It’s just how the body reacts to a rehab.

  22. Meat eating IS NOT KETO. Meat should only be 1/4 of the keto diet. Also, weight loss is SIGNIFICANT on keto. Yes calories are calories, but keto has you burning your own fat and the fat you eat for fuel while reducing calories from glucose. That is huge when it comes to weight in itself, but the biggest part you left out is the psychological factor. Carbs are extremely addictive compared to other food sources, and most if not all studies on ketones that I know of shows an overwhelming loss of cravings when it comes to high carb – high calorie meals.

  23. "Think steak, bacon, and pork chops day in and day out" Wrong, 30 seconds in and wrong.

  24. fasting + keto . very happy . lost 20 kg and kept most of it for 2 years now . relatively easy too

  25. And some more info /evidence on how bad keto can be: https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/keto-diet/

  26. “Bro Science” wtf is that. Keto and low carb is a way of life. It works.

  27. I do Not follow keto diet or any diet at all. I do eat carbs( sweet fruits more than 1 serving a day). But I'm a huge supporter of keto for political reasons: it's a battle with vegoRetards who want to outlaw meat eating and are going to perform a genocide against meat eaters all together. I had already started. And it's more dangerous than that "Islamic terrorism", "Baldelber's club" and all other conspiracies.

  28. Decent video but i lost 13kg on this diet and going steady. I was never fat but now im fit so it works.

  29. I learned about food thanks to WooPep team.

  30. But what about cardio vascular diseases due to high amounts of animal fats?

  31. easy way to lose many weight , helped me!! i think can help others too!!! http://eunsetee.com/Ccrc

  32. You’re so wrong on a lot of this. I went from 285 to 170 then put muscle on to my current weight of 185 with keto. I’ve done this in a year and a half. There’s no way that was all water weight

  33. "Best diet is the one that you can stick to?" It's your fault if you can't stick to it, blaming on the diet is just plain stupid, humans lol

  34. Poorly framed review. Heavily influenced by the dietary dogma which has led us to the current obesity and diabetes pandemic.

  35. Nice jacket

  36. Great keto-diet summary!

  37. You missed the guy who won a Nobel prize (I think it was 2017) for proving that intermittent fasting (and going into ketosis) made your body harvest damaged cells thereby making you healthier

  38. One question (someone feel free to answer):
    Is there a difference in human health on a keto diet if say a reindeer is eaten (who ate grass, greens in general) vs eating say a wild cat that ate animals that ate greens? Hopefully that’s makes sense. Sticking with the mentioned expedition theme from the beginning of video**

  39. What about it inducing ketoacidosis and the affects on your kidneys?

  40. The ADA recommends people looking to lose weight to find a diet they can stick to. If you can stick to keto, then keep at it until you get to your goal weight, then reintroduce carbs. Returning to carbs is part of Atkins.

    It is really hilarious to see long time Scishow viewers, who, on any other video would agree "anecdotes are not the same as evidence!" use their anecdotes to justify keto. There isn't research backing all the health claims made. I mean, I had a severe blood sugar crash when following keto for one week. Does my anecdote prove it's unhealthy? Hell, maybe you're not feeling better because of the keto. Maybe you're feeling better because you're eating fewer processed foods (like many doctors recommend for health). We just don't know and, given the amount of saturated fat in meats, it is not responsible to claim that keto is the ideal healthy diet for humans. Bodies are different, so it's important to work with your doctor to find the best combo of diet and exercise for you.

    If you feel satiated and are losing weight on keto, then great, keep it up! Satiety is an important part of a diet. I personally stick to plant based because I feel fuller and more satisfied after a bowl of edamame instead of a nice cut of filet.

  41. WULL, WULL, WULL YOU CAN HAVE VEGGIES ON KETO TOO YA KNOW. KETO IS THE BEST. – The comments

  42. Keto is effective. I feel great and lost 17kg in 4 months. So u might want to check ur so called sciencetific results on weightlost

  43. keto doesn't help any athletic performance on the high level. it'll help say normal ppl. close enough is the difference between 3rd and 1st.

  44. No fun

  45. You see my teeth are made to eat plants and meat so I'll do that

  46. Great! Now we can compensate for the vegans.

  47. Amazing diet!!! Absolutely delicious

  48. Now will parent listen to their kids when they say they don’t want to eat their “veggies” which of course if prepared in a way that tastes good usually involves fat anyways

  49. Dang, this dude has gained a lot of weight since first appearing on this show. He needs to go on a keto diet himself lol

  50. Your report is incomplete in that you didn't talk about cardiovascular health and longevity. Also about sampling size for these experiments.

  51. Interesting video, but wrong. Keto is not just a high fat low carb diet – it also requires that protein is restricted to only what your body requires for growth and repair. It is a very different diet from Atkins, which is very high in protein. Excess protein is turned into glucose, which will keep you out of ketosis.

  52. Keto is certainly not for everyone. However you skipped the complementatry relationship Keto has with Intermittent fasting. Keto does a good job of controlling appetite and reducing insulin spikes. Therefore it serves as a gateway to intermittent fasting especially for those who have insulin resistance (type-2 or pre-type 2 diabetes). Is keto REQUIRED for intermittent fasting? No. But chances are, if you are not already in good shape, intermittent fasting would be much harder if not on keto.

  53. I am a diabetic, i have twice been hospitalised with ketoacidosis, so how come if ketones are so healthy why was I dying?

  54. Keto is like vaping.

  55. Pathetic video name. It's true that the keto diet is not the ideal option for all people, but that is also true for any other diet. We all have, more or less, different genes, different homeostatic processes, different experiences and lifestyles, different goals and so on. The keto diet, like other diets, has it's specific applications. Very misleading title. The information is not very accurate either. It is not necessarily a low carb / high fat diet. It's the low carb part that is important. Eating a low carb and low or medium fat is also ketogenic. The body will obviously lose weight because in these cases you may eat less calories than the minimum required for the metabolism, so the body has no choice but to use its own fat as fuel. On the other hand, even if you eat very little carbs, medium protein and a huge amount of fats, you will not lose weight (or even gain weight) because you have much more energy than required.

  56. Keto is the normal human diet that we've had for millions of years. Not a fad. We are born in ketosis.
    Gluconeogenesis isn't the backup plan. It's the primary plan.
    Ketosis isn't special. It's normal.
    Plants are for backup, supplementation, and as medication.
    Being fat is merely a symptom of a poor diet.
    With the increase of processed carbs and sugar over the past century, all chronic and auto-immune diseases have increased dramatically.

    Please redo this video after further research.

  57. Tried millions of diet. Keto was new better world. But dont know if its healthy. Sure I feel much better, hope it is, because dont want back.

  58. You jumped around with fasting, all meat carnivore diets, and then keto… Very inconsistent with your presentation also lying by omission whether aware or not when you explained how all diets correlate with weight loss yet never mention combined keto with intermittent fasting.

  59. Bananananananananas

  60. Keto vs carnivore are not same thing. Not even close. Lol.

  61. "meat" as it's sold in the west, is muscle and doesn't have vitamins. Ya gotta eat those organs, that's where the vitamins are, and that's what the arctic explorers they are talking about ate. I don't know about the US, but you can't even buy organs in the supermarkets here, so most likely everyone on this diet long term is putting themselves in danger from the pure fact that they aren't getting vitamin?

    It's so odd they didn't mention this in the show. There's a huge difference between eating heart, liver, lungs + muscle and fat, and only eating muscle and fat.

  62. So you're saying… Ketosis definitely helps Parkinsons, Epilepsy, Alzheimer, GABA and norepinephrine balance, helps verbal memory but that there's no benefit for "healthy" people.
    Yeah, that makes a lot of sense….

    Diets that exclude an entire food group are hard to keep? Tell that to the vegetarians.

  63. So your argument against Keto is that it's hard to stick to? 2 years Keto, 1 year Carnivore, I came for the weight loss, but stayed for: sharp mind, awesome mood, stable energy, chronic pain DISSAPEARED only to creep back in when I experiment with carbs, then Carnivore upped my game with: improved athletic stamina, strength, recovery after tough workouts, muscle composition, and i got EVEN LEANER! Results make it EASY to stick to this diet! Try it for a month!

  64. many doctors who recommend a keto diet say that 70% of your food intake should be vegetables low in carbs such as green vegetables. no one is saying that you should eat 100% fat and protein. that's a paleo diet, i think.

  65. I do not think this video is well researched. It is dangerous for people with type 2 diabetes, no doctor would recommend it. The theory for why it works for epilepsy, is that it's starving the brain so the miss firing of neurons decreases, because the brain is starving. Some people will have succes (because they can afford it) and others can be in life threatening situations. It was meant for children (because it was so restrictive that adults had a hard time actually following it) with epilepsy. My professors who are PhDs in food and nutrition and food science, say it is a fad diet.

  66. Thank you for a pretty nice vid and the final word: no one diet fits all. FYI the fat-insuline theory goes way before Atkins, back to pre-WW2 Germany universities. I'm not sure what experiments you were able to check preparing this film – just want to say, check carefuly what went under a general "low fat-high fat comparison" title. Out of a misconception many those experiments included no keto adapted subjects. At the same time a number of studies to the keto-slimming advantage remains omitted due to "the dissapointing outcomes" as one researcher put it.

  67. Keto is for the FAT ass people who can't watch what is entering their mouths and can't stop eating.

  68. The ketogenic diet makes it very easy to fast.

  69. There is a one sized fits all. Eat a balanced diet of whole foods. Fuel your body with high fibre complex carbs, healthy fats and clean protein. Get all or most of your intake from plant-based, unprocessed, whole foods.

  70. Not sure if this was commented anywhere but the background beginning and end music sounds like it’s taken from the soundtrack of Streets of Rage from one of the levels!!

  71. To the comments that probably don't come to this channel all that much – he's discussing the historical keto diet, whichs meaning has colloquially morphed into meaning just no carbs, but in the centuries past no carbs also meant only meat,.that's why vegetables and other low carb foods aren't mentioned. Also the carb insulin hypothesis is just that, a hypothesis. There's a reason it's a hypothesis despite all of the public "in my experience" statements. It's likely a placebo effect, and the weight loss experienced is because it gives you a simple goal and makes label reading more attractive, and either calorie counting for people prone to overeating, and or the removal of pressure in regards of when to stop eating.

  72. This is not just an Inuit diet – prior to farming going all the way back to homo erectus, our ancestors got their nutrition mainly from meat, with fruits (sugars) and carbs (seeds) only for short seasons when these were available (they didn't store these and eat these year long like we do now nor in such quantities). The meat they got by two means – by running down prey in hot weather on the African plains (difficult), and by chasing away predators from their kills (easy and the preferred method). The nutrition they got from chasing away predators from their kills had a very high fat content because by the time they got there, the predators would have eaten a lot of the meat. Our ancestors could break the bones apart with stone tools to get at the bone marrow and brain – which are mostly fat. So the keto diet was our normal diet going back at least 2 million years and only changed 5000 years ago. The body's glucose burning mode which switches in when you eat more than 20 grammes of carbohydrates a day is an equally old adaptation to make use of fruits and seeds available during short fruiting and seed production seasons to fatten up. When these are available, your body instructs you to pig out on these, and the normal controls in a ketosis state against overeating when you eat too much are suspended.
    It should be noted that a high protein diet isn't the keto diet. The keto diet is a high fat, moderate protein, very low card diet, as the Inuit eat. This is important because the energy that people would get from carbs, needs to be replaced by energy from fats if carbs are removed, so fat is important

  73. I find keto/carnivore the easiest way of eating to maintain.

  74. If only meat and meat alternatives weren't so expensive and carbohydrates so delicious.

  75. He is obviously not on keto xD

  76. Looks like you should try it yourself so you are in capacity to inform others. The reason why it does not work long term for some is because they are consconstanly challenge or advice against it by friends or the medical community who never learnt about biochemical processes in the body.

  77. thank you patrons

  78. There is one huge difference when it comes to a keto vs traditional diet… Keto diets have long lasting results because it does NOT lower the basic metabolic rate unlike traditional calorie restrictive diets… and that is why it is the better choice for weight loss

  79. Regarding weight loss, he is conflating diets being ineffective because sticking to any diet is hard vs being inherently ineffective. My understanding is that in shorter tests where people actually do stick to different diets that keto and atkins actually do outperform other diets. Long term it's all a wash because humans are terrible at changing their eating habits.

  80. Keto rules.

  81. The National Food Pyramid recommends that the two largest food groups to consume each day are fruit (7 servings of carbs there) and breads (5 servings of carbs there). Then, 3 servings of milk products (which in milk is half carbs and half protein)…..

    In that Type 2 food induced diabetics aren't able to eat carbs without drug use, it is evident that the government food pyramid is wrong.

  82. if you want to do high intensity exercise on keto just drink coffee beforehand, it makes your liver produce more sugar into your blood but at the same time it makes the body produce Adrenaline which stops insulin temporarily so you will not get out of ketosis , but for people who eat carbs and sugar with their coffee that will make them crash after a while and they will develop insulin resistance in the long run

  83. Once I was hospitalized and they found ketones in my urine. So they put me on IVs and wouldnt let me leave until I tested negative for it, which took 2 weeks.

  84. I’ve lost over 50 pounds. Though I suspect that the reason is because it’s an easy diet for me to stick to. I like meat and fat and cutting out bread was easy.

  85. I think keto diet may work for people because it’s harder to cheat. You have to pay attention to so many things and there’s only a handful of available snacks. Might be why so many different diets perform similarly in official testing because people will be more motivated to stick to a diet when they’re part of a study. The act of measuring may influence the results.

  86. I’ve lost 105 lbs on the keto diet in about 18 months. I’ve tried all the others. This is the easiest diet I’ve ever been on.

  87. whats the drawback of keto diet though? Are there any potential medical complications? I mean patients with excessive ketones in their blood stream can go into ketoacidosis. Is this not a concern with keto diet?

  88. It's actually carnivore diet. BTW I just unsubscribed.

  89. The carnivore keto diet has reversed my autoimmune disease

  90. As a diabetic the Ketone stuff confused me. I’ve had ketone poisoning more than once and I’m wondering how that works if ketones are produced from a lack of glucose.

  91. The amount of misinformation here is staggering. The very fact that you're equating fasting and starving tells everyone that you don't know what the heck you're talking about. The two are very different.

    Fasting is voluntarily not eating for a period of time during which you survive off of your fat stores.

    Starvation is generally involuntary and describes the state in which your fat stores have been depleted and your body starts to consume its own muscles and organs.

    The first is a good way to lose weight. The later is a not-so-good way to die.

    Also, Atkins and Keto are extremely different as well. Atkins looks exclusively at cutting out things labeled as "carbs" but allows you to eat pretty much anything else. In Keto you're paying more attention to your macro nutrients so you're looking to eat more healthy fats, a moderate amount of protein and few, if any, carbs & sugars (which is understood to act much the same as a straight carbs).

    And then there's the whole water weight thing: yes much of the weight you lose at first on a keto diet is water weight because carbs do hold onto water better than fat does but that is largely done after a day or two at which point you're losing weight by burning fat.

    Finally, as you yourself said, the brain does not need glucose nor was it ever designed to use that as a primary food source as apparent by our hunter gatherer roots. We've developped a dependency on glucose because carb & sugar laden foods are cheaper & more readily available compared to low carb & sugar foods…largely (but not fully) due to various processed food manufacturers lobbying for cash subsidies from various governments.

  92. Ketosis can be very dangerous long term. Your brain requires glucose to work properly. And yes, the Inuit thrive on a meat based diet…for some 40 years. Then they die from heart disease. Like Atkins himself. The reason why you lose weight on a keto diet is because the body's main energy source are carbs. It's the most effiecient. The body doesn't need to convert protein into glucose, which it does, thus loses energy, in ketosis. So if you're gonna stuff your face all day on sugary and fatty processed carbs, you're gonna get fat, yes. Try getting fat on fruit.
    If you want the biggest, longest and most comprehensive study on nutrition, check out "the China study" by T Colin Campbell.
    And as a reference to athletes and how some have improved their performance, check out "the Game Changers".

  93. lol the commentator could use the keto diet

  94. Atkins died from heart disease. Meat production is terrible for the planet, your heart, and the animals. Watch The Game Changers!

  95. carbs from lentils are best, along with any veggies.

    veggies are vital to keto……….

  96. Yes, I lost 30lbs in 3 months doing it with moderate exercise (30-45min a day)

  97. exactly , thats why i left this horrible diet caveman style..i do cycling too..not too much..maybe 14 kilometers per day…and when i was on keto ..i felt very very bad,the muscle at that time couldnt do ..and i feel like a 80 year old guy..besides ..you loose a lot of salt and minerals..because fat has some how a way to flush everything from the body like electrolite …i eat not too much bread or pasta or tortillas too…but still eat that..and i feel very good..and lean too…you cant live forever on keto…besides..eat a lot of meat makes you animal killer too

  98. LoL
    carbohydrate insulin hypothesis?
    It would be more accurately called carbohydrate insulin Theory, because it explains the facts and evidence we see.

    The studies that don't show this, or agree, were poorly designed and ran, or they did not reduce carbohydrates sufficiently to lower insulin to a level that would permit Ketone production, thus didn't result in weight loss.

    Obviously we are all different, but a whole food low carb diet & fasting is the best diet for the majority of the population. How low carb is required depends on the person, and the keto diet is a subset of low carb diets.

  99. The reason carbs, aka sugar, are prioritized by your body, is because carbohydrates react with protein, called glycation, causing damage. Your body is made of much protein, damaging this is bad. A body that did not prioritize carbohydrates would be less adapted.

    This does not mean carbs are the preferred fuel, excepting a few specific cells, just that they are prioritized for other reasons.

  100. So my cousin has lost alot of weight with the ketones. I would say just do what's best for you, if you are someone who cant lose weight no matter what then just make sure you eat healthy. As long as we eat healthy and dont over indulge nothing matters. The issue is we eat so much garbage and fatty foods that arent healthy.

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