Dietary supplement | Wikipedia audio article



a dietary supplement as a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill capsule tablet or liquid a supplement can provide nutrients either extracted from food sources or synthetic individually or in combination in order to increase the quantity of their consumption the class of nutrient compounds includes vitamins minerals fiber fatty acids and amino acids dietary supplements can also contain substances that have not been confirmed as being essential to life but are marketed as having a beneficial biological effect such as plant pigments or polyphenols animals can also be a source of supplement ingredients as for example collagen from chickens or fish these are also sold individually and in combination and may be combined with nutrient ingredients in the United States and Canada dietary supplements are considered a subset of foods and are regulated accordingly the European Commission has also established harmonized rules to help ensure that food supplements are safe and properly labeled among other countries the definition of dietary supplements may vary as drugs or other classes of ingredients used in supplement products creating an industry estimated to have a 2015 value of 37 billion dollars there are more than 50,000 dietary supplement products marketed just in the United States where about 50 percent of the American adult population consumes dietary supplements multivitamins are the most commonly used product for those who fail to consume a balanced diet the United States National Institutes of Health states that certain supplements may have value in the United States it is against federal regulations for supplement manufacturers to claim that these products prevent or treat any disease companies are allowed to use what is referred to as structure function wording if there is substantiation of scientific evidence for a supplement providing a potential health effect an example would be Blanc helps maintain healthy joints but the label must bear a disclaimer that the Food and Drug Administration FDA has not evaluated the claim and that the dietary supplement product is not intended to diagnose treat cure or prevent any disease because only a drug can legally make such a claim the FDA enforces these regulations and also prohibits the sale of supplements and supplement ingredients that are dangerous or supplements not made according to standardized good manufacturing practices GM Peas topic definition in the United States the dietary supplement health and education Act of 1994 provides this description the dietary supplement health and education Act of 1994 DSHEA defines the term dietary supplement to mean a product other than tobacco intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin a mineral and herb or other botanical an amino acid a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake or a concentrate metabolite constituent extract or combination of any of the aforementioned ingredients furthermore a dietary supplement must be labeled as a dietary supplement and be intended for ingestion and must not be represented for use as conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or of the diet in addition a dietary supplement cannot be approved or authorized for investigation as a new drug antibiotic or biologic unless it was marketed as a food or a dietary supplement before such approval or authorization under DSHEA dietary supplements are deemed to be food except for purposes of the drug definition for DSHEA dietary supplements are consumed orally and are mainly defined by what they are not conventional foods including meal replacements medical foods preservatives or pharmaceutical drugs products intended for use as a nasal spray or topically as a lotion applied to the skin do not qualify fda-approved drugs cannot be ingredients in dietary supplements supplement products are or contain vitamins nutritionally essential minerals amino acids essential fatty acids and non nutrient substances extracted from plants or animals or fungi or bacteria or in the instance of probiotics are live bacterial dietary supplement ingredients may also be synthetic copies of naturally occurring substances example melatonin all products with these ingredients are required to be labeled as dietary supplements like foods and unlike drugs no government approval is required to make or sell die pterri supplements the manufacturer confirms the safety of dietary supplements but the government does not and rather than requiring risk benefit analysis to prove that the product can be sold like a drug such assessment is only used by the FDA to decide that a dietary supplement is unsafe and should be removed from market topic types you topic vitamins a vitamin as an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts an organic chemical compound or related set of compounds is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism and must be obtained from the diet the term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism for example ascorbic acid vitamin C is a vitamin for anthropoid primates humans guinea pigs and bats but not for other mammals vitamin D is not an essential nutrient for people who get sufficient exposure to ultraviolet light either from the Sun or an artificial source as then they synthesize vitamin D and skin humans require 13 vitamins in their diet most of which are actually groups of related molecules vitamins eg vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols vitamin k includes vitamin k1 and k2 the list vitamins A C D E K thiamine b1 riboflavin b2 niacin b3 pantothenic acid b5 vitamin b6 biotin b7 folate b9 and vitamin b12 vitamin intake below recommended amounts can result in signs and symptoms associated with vitamin deficiency there is little evidence of benefit when consumed as a dietary supplement by those who are healthy and consuming a nutritionally adequate diet the u.s. Institute of Medicine sets tolerable upper intake levels you else for some of the vitamins this does not prevent dietary supplement companies from selling products with content per serving higher than the US for example the OL for vitamin D has 100 micrograms 4000 u but products are available without prescription at 10,000 year topic dietary minerals minerals are the exogenous chemical elements indispensable for life for minerals carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen are essential for life but are so ubiquitous in food and drink that these are not considered nutrients and there are no recommended intakes for these as minerals the need for nitrogen is addressed by requirements set for protein which is composed of nitrogen containing amino acids sulfur is essential but for humans not identified as having a recommended intake per se instead recommended intakes are identified for the sulfur containing amino acids methionine and cysteine there are dietary supplements which provide sulphur such as taurine and methylsulfonylmethane the essential nutrient minerals for humans listed in order by weight needed to be at the recommended dietary allowance or adequate intake are potassium chlorine sodium calcium phosphorus magnesium iron zinc manganese copper iodine chromium molybdenum selenium and cobalt the last is a component of vitamin b12 there are other minerals which are essential for some plants and animals but may or may not be essential for humans such as boron in silicon essential and purportedly essential minerals are marketed as dietary supplements individually and in combination with vitamins and other minerals although as a general rule dietary supplement labeling and marketing are not allowed to make disease prevention or treatment claims the US FDA has for some foods and dietary supplements reviewed the science concluded that there is significant scientific agreement and published specifically worded allowed health claims an initial ruling allowing a health claim for calcium dietary supplements and osteoporosis was later amended to include calcium supplements with or without vitamin D effective January 1st 2010 examples of allowed wording are shown below in order to qualify for the calcium health claim a dietary supplement much contained at least 20% of the reference dietary intake which for calcium means at least 260 milligrams serving adequate calcium throughout life as part of a well-balanced diet may reduce the risk of osteoporosis adequate calcium as part of a healthful diet along with physical activity may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life adequate calcium and vitamin D throughout life as part of a well-balanced diet may reduce the risk of osteoporosis adequate calcium and vitamin D as part of a healthful diet along with physical activity may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life in the same year the European Food Safety Authority also approved a dietary supplement health claim for calcium and vitamin D and the reduction of the risk of osteoporotic fractures by reducing bone loss the US FDA also approved qualified health claims QH C's for various health conditions for calcium selenium and chromium picolinate qhc s are supported by scientific evidence but do not meet the more rigorous significant scientific agreement standard required for an authorized health claim if dietary supplement companies choose to make such a claim then the FDA stipulates the exact wording of the qhc to be used on labels and in marketing materials the wording can be onerous one study suggests that selenium intake may reduce the risk of bladder cancer in women however one smaller study showed no reduction in risk based on these studies FDA concludes that it is highly uncertain that selenium supplements reduce the risk of bladder cancer in women topic proteins and amino acids protein containing supplements either ready-to-drink or as powders to be mixed into water are marketed as aids to people recovering from illness or injury those hoping to thwart the sarcopenia of old age to athletes who believe that strenuous physical activity increases protein requirements to people hoping to lose weight while minimizing muscle loss ie conducting a protein sparing modified fast and to people who want to increase muscle size for performance and appearance whey protein is a popular ingredient but products may also incorporate casein soy pee hemp or rice protein according to US and Canadian Dietary Reference intake guidelines the protein recommended dietary allowance RDA for adults is based on 0.8 grams protein per kilogram body weight the recommendation is for sedentary and lightly active people scientific reviews can conclude that a high-protein diet when combined with exercise will increase muscle mass and strength or conclude the opposite the International Olympic Committee recommends protein intake targets for both strength and endurance athletes at about 1.2 to 1.8 grams per kilogram body mass per day one review proposed a maximum daily protein intake of approximately 25% of energy requirements ie approximately 2.0 to 2.5 grams per kilogram the same protein ingredients marketed as dietary supplements can be incorporated into meal replacement and medical food products but those are regulated and labeled differently from supplements in the United States meal replacement products are foods and are labeled as such these typically contain protein carbohydrates fats vitamins and minerals there may be content claims such as good source of protein low fat or lactose free medical foods also nutritionally complete are designed to be used while a person is under the care of a physician or other licensed healthcare professional liquid medical food products example ensure are available in regular and high-protein versions proteins are chains of amino acids nine of these protein O genic amino acids are considered essential for humans because they cannot be produced from other compounds by the human body and so must be taken in his food recommended intakes expressed as milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day have been established other amino acids may be conditionally essential for certain ages or medical conditions amino acids individually and in combinations are sold as dietary supplements the claim for supplementing with the branched chain amino acids leucine valine and isoleucine as for stimulating muscle protein synthesis a review of the literature concluded this claim was unwarranted in elderly people supplementation with just leucine resulted in a modest 0.99 kilograms increase in lean body mass the non-essential amino acid arginine consumed in sufficient amounts is thought to act as a donor for the synthesis of nitric oxide a vasodilator a review confirmed blood pressure lowering taurine a popular dietary supplement ingredient with claims made for sports performance is technically not an amino acid it is synthesized in the body from the amino acid cysteine topic bodybuilding supplements bodybuilding supplements are dietary supplements commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding weightlifting mixed martial arts and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass the intent is to increase muscle increase body weight improve athletic performance and for some sports to simultaneously decrease % body fat so as to create better muscle definition among the most widely used are high protein drinks branched chain amino acids BCAA glutamine arginine essential fatty acids creatine hmb and weight loss products supplements are sold either as single ingredient preparations or in the form of stacks proprietary blends of various supplements marketed as offering synergistic advantages while many bodybuilding supplements are also consumed by the general public the frequency of use will differ when used specifically by bodybuilders one meta-analysis concluded that for athletes participating in resistance exercise training and consuming protein supplements for an average of 13 weeks total protein intake up to 1.6 grams per kilogram of body weight per day would result in an increase in strength and fat free mass ie muscle but that higher intakes would not further contribute the muscle mass increase was statistically significant but modest averaging 0.3 kilograms for all trials in 1.0 to 2.0 kilograms for protein intake 1.6 grams per kilogram per day as of 2010 annual sales of sport nutrition products in the United States was over 2.7 billion dollars according to a publication by Consumer Reports topic essential fatty acids fish oil is a commonly used fatty acid supplement because it is a source of omega-3 fatty acids fatty acids are strings of carbon atoms having a range of lengths if links are all single cc then the fatty acid is called saturated with one double bond C equals C it is called monounsaturated if there are two or more double bonds C equals C equals C it is called polyunsaturated only two fatty acids both polyunsaturated are considered essential to be obtained from the diet as the others are synthesized in the body the essential fatty acids are alpha linolenic acid ala an omega-3 fatty acid and linoleic acid LA and omega-6 fatty acid ala can be elongated in the body to create other omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA plant oils particularly seed and nut oils contain ala food sources of epa and DHA or oceanic fish whereas dietary supplement sources include fish oil krill oil and marine algae extracts the European Food Safety Authority EFSA identifies 250 milligrams per day for a combined total of epa and DHA as adequate intake with a recommendation that women pregnant or lactating consume an additional 100 to 200 milligrams per day of DHA in the United States and Canada are adequate intakes for 'allah and la over various stages of life but there are no intake levels specified for EPA and/or DHA supplementation with EPA and/or DHA does not appear to affect the risk of death cancer or heart disease furthermore studies of fish oil supplements have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes in 2017 the American Heart Association issued a science advisory stating that it could not recommend use of omega-3 fish oil supplements for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease or stroke although it reaffirmed supplementation for people who have a history of coronary heart disease topic natural products dietary supplements can be manufactured using intact sources or extracts from plants animals algae fungi or lichens including such examples as ginkgo biloba curcumin cranberry st. John's wort ginseng resveratrol glucosamine and collagen products bearing promotional claims of health benefits are sold without requiring a prescription in pharmacies supermarkets specialist shops military commissaries buyers clubs Direct Selling organizations and the internet while most of these products have a long history of use in herbalism and various forms of traditional medicine concerns exist about their actual efficacy safety and consistency of quality canada has published a manufacturer and consumer guide describing quality licensing standards identities and common contaminants of natural products in 2016 sales of herbal supplements just in the United States were 7.5 billion dollars with the market growing at about 8 percent per year Italy Germany and Eastern European countries were leading consumers of botanical supplements in 2016 with European Union market growth forecast to be eight point seven billion dollars by 2020 topic probiotics in humans the large intestine is host to more than 1,000 species of microorganisms mostly bacteria numbering in the tens of trillions probiotic in the context of dietary supplements as the theory that by orally consuming specific live bacteria or yeast species it is possible to influence the large intestine microbiota with consequent health benefits although there are numerous claimed benefits of using probiotic supplements such as maintaining gastrointestinal health in part by lowering risk of and severity of constipation or diarrhea and improving immune health including lower risk of and severity of acute upper respiratory tract infections ie the common cold such claims are not all supported by sufficient clinical evidence a review based on interviews with dozens of experts in microbiome research expressed concern about thought how biomedical research is co-opted by commercial entities that place profit over health the concern is timely as through 2021 probiotic supplements are expected to be the fastest growing segment of the dietary supplement market worldwide while at the same time the global health benefits market for probiotic containing yogurt of food not a dietary supplement is declining as with all dietary supplements in the United States inappropriate label health claims such as preventing or treating disease are opposed by the FDA and deceptive advertisements by the Federal Trade Commission probiotic foods and dietary supplements are allowed to make claims using structure function vocabulary as long as human trial evidence as adequate in 2005 the FDA issued a warning letter to UAS laboratories for disease treatment claims colds flu ulcers elevated blood cholesterol colon cancer the company revised label and website content and continued to sell the product in 2011 the company was found to have resumed the label and website claims and the FDA seized product and stopped production in 2010 FTC action was brought against a probiotic food company for exaggerated health claims resulting in a multi-million dollar fine and revisions to future advertising in the European Union a more restrictive approach has been taken by the EFSA all proposed health claims were rejected on the grounds that the science was not sufficient and no health claims are permitted foods with live microorganisms yogurt kefir can be sold but without claims probiotic supplements are generally regarded as safe the greatest concern evidenced by reviews reporting on case studies is that for people with compromised gut wall integrity there may be a risk of systemic infection for this reason probiotic research is expected to exclude bacterial species that are antibiotic resistant topic industry in 2015 the American market for dietary supplements was valued at 37 billion dollars with the economic impact in the United States for 2016 estimated at 122 billion dollars including employment wages in taxes one 2016 analysis estimated the total market for dietary supplements could reach 278 billion dollars worldwide by 2024 topic controversy you topic adulteration over the period 2008 to 2011 the Government Accountability Office Gao of the United States received six thousand three hundred seven reports of health problems identified as adverse events from use of dietary supplements containing a combination of ingredients in manufactured vitamins minerals or other supplement products with 92% of tested herbal supplements containing lead and 80 percent containing other chemical contaminants using undercover staff the GAO also found that supplement retailers intentionally engaged in unequivocal deception to sell products advertised with baseless health claims particularly to elderly consumers Consumer Reports also reported unsafe levels of arsenic cadmium lead and mercury in several protein powder products The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CBC reported that protein spiking ie the addition of amino acids to manipulate protein content analysis was common many of the companies involved challenged CBC's claim a 2013 study on herbal supplements found that many products were of low quality one-third did not contain the active ingredients claimed and one-third contained unlisted substances in a genetic analysis of herbal supplements 78% of samples contained animal DNA that was not identified as an ingredient on the product labels in some botanical products undeclared ingredients were used to increase the bulk of the product and reduce its cost of manufacturing while potentially violating certain religious and/or cultural limitations on consuming animal ingredients such as cow Buffalo or deer in 2015 the New York Attorney General identified four major retailers with dietary supplement products that contained fraudulent and potentially dangerous ingredients requiring the companies to remove the products from retail stores a study of dietary supplements sold between 2007 and 2016 identified 776 that contained unlisted pharmaceutical drugs many of which could interact with other medications and lead to hospitalization 86% of the adulterated supplements were marketed for weight loss and sexual performance with many containing prescription erectile dysfunction medication muscle building were contaminated with anabolic steroids and multiple products contained antidepressants and antihistamine despite these findings fewer than half of the adulterated supplements were recalled topic litigation against false health claims the United States Food and Drug Administration office of inspections compliance enforcement and Criminal Investigations monitors supplement products for accuracy in advertising and labeling and when finding violations warns manufacturers of impending enforcement action including search and seizure injunction and or financial penalties such as for a main supplement company in 2017 the United States Federal Trade Commission which litigates against deceptive advertising established a consumer centered to assist reports of false health claims in product advertising for dietary supplements and in 2017 successfully sued nine manufacturers for deceptive advertising of dietary supplements topic adverse effects in the united states manufacturers of dietary supplements are required to demonstrate safety of their products before approval is granted for commerce despite this caution numerous adverse effects have been reported including muscle cramps hair loss joint pain liver disease and allergic reactions with 29 percent of the adverse effects resulting in hospitalization and 20% in serious injuries or illnesses by more than fivefold the highest incidence of health problems derived from combination products whereas supplements for vitamins and minerals lipid products and herbal products were less likely to cause adverse effects among general reasons for the possible harmful effects of dietary supplements are absorption in a short time be manufacturing quality and contamination and sea enhancing both positive and negative effects at the same time the incidence of liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements as about 16 to 20 percent of all supplement products causing injury with the occurrence growing globally over the early 21st century the most common liver injuries from weight loss and bodybuilding supplements involve hepatocellular damage with resulting jaundice and the most common supplement ingredients attributed to these injuries are green tea catechins anabolic steroids and the herbal extract age line weight loss supplements have also had adverse psychiatric effects topic society and culture you topic public health work done by scientists in the early 20th century on identifying individual nutrients in food and developing ways to manufacture them raised hopes that optimal health could be achieved and diseases prevented by adding them to food and providing people with dietary supplements while there were successes in preventing vitamin deficiencies and preventing conditions like neural tube defects by supplementation and food fortification with folic acid no targeted supplementation or fortification strategies to prevent major diseases like cancer or cardiovascular diseases have proved successful for example while increased consumption of fruits and vegetables are related to decreases in mortality cardiovascular diseases and cancers supplementation with key factors found in fruits and vegetable like antioxidants vitamins or minerals do not help and some have been found to be harmful in some cases in general as of 2016 robust clinical data is lacking that shows that any kind of dietary supplementation does more good than harm for people who are healthy and eating a reasonable diet but there is clear data showing that dietary pattern and lifestyle choices are associated with health outcomes as a result of the lack of good data for supplementation and the strong data for dietary pattern Public Health recommendations for healthy eating urge people to eat a plant-based diet of Whole Foods minimizing processed food salt and sugar and to get exercise daily and to abandon Western pattern diets and a sedentary lifestyle topic legal regulation you topic United States the regulation of food and dietary supplements by the US Food and Drug Administration is governed by various statutes enacted by the United States Congress and interpreted by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA pursuant to the federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act the Act an accompanying legislation the FDA has authority to oversee the quality of substances sold as food in the United States and to monitor claims made in the labeling about both the composition and the health benefits of foods substances which the FDA regulates as food are subdivided into various categories including foods food additives added substances man-made substances which are not intentionally introduced into food but nevertheless end up in it and dietary supplements the specific standards which the FDA exercises differ from one category to the next furthermore the FDA has been granted a variety of means by which it can address violations of the standards for a given category of substances dietary supplement manufacturer is required to comply with the good manufacturing practices established in 2007 the FDA can visit manufacturing facilities send warning letters if not in compliance with GMP s stop production and if there is a health risk required that the company conduct a recall topic European Union the European Union's EU food supplements directive of 2002 requires that supplements be demonstrated to be safe both in dosages and impurity only those supplements that have been proven to be safe may be sold in the EU without prescription as a category of food food supplements cannot be labeled with drug claims but can bear health claims and nutrition claims the dietary supplements industry in the United Kingdom UK one of the 28 countries in the block strongly opposed the directive in addition a large number of consumers throughout Europe including over 1 million in the UK and various doctors and scientists had signed petitions by 2005 against what are viewed by the petitioners as in justified restrictions of consumer choice in 2004 along with two British trade associations the Alliance for natural health and had a legal challenge to the food supplements directive referred to the European Court of Justice by the High Court in London although the European Court of Justices Advocate General subsequently said that the bloc's plan to tighten rules on the sale of vitamins and food supplements should be scrapped he was eventually overruled by the European Court which decided that the measures in question were necessary and appropriate for the purpose of protecting Public Health and however interpreted the ban as applying only to synthetically produced supplements and not to vitamins and minerals normally found in or consumed as part of the diet nevertheless the European judges acknowledged the Advocate General's concerns stating that there must be clear procedures to allow substances to be added to the permitted list based on scientific evidence they also said that any refusal to add the product to the list must be open to challenge in the courts topic research examples of ongoing government research organizations to better understand the potential health properties and safety of dietary supplements are the European Food Safety Authority the office of dietary supplements of the United States National Institutes of Health the natural and non-prescription Health Products Directorate of Canada and the Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia together with public and private research groups these agencies construct databases on supplement properties perform research on quality safety and population trends of supplement use and evaluate the potential clinical efficacy of supplements for maintaining health or lowering disease risk topic databases as continual research on the properties of supplements accumulates databases or fact sheets for various supplements are updated regularly including the dietary supplement label database Dionysius and dietary supplement facts sheets of the United States in Canada where a license is issued when a supplement product has been proven by the manufacturer and government to be safe effective and of sufficient quality for its recommended use an 8-digit natural product number is assigned and recorded in a licensed natural health products database the European Food Safety Authority maintains a compendium of botanical ingredients used in manufacturing of dietary supplements in 2015 the Australian Government's Department of Health published the results of a review of herbal supplements to determine if any were suitable for coverage by health insurance establishing guidelines to assess safety and efficacy of botanical supplement products the European Medicines Agency provided criteria for evaluating and grading the quality of clinical research in preparing monographs about herbal supplements in the United States the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the National Institutes of Health provides fact sheets evaluating the safety potential effectiveness and side-effects of many botanical products topic quality and safety to assure supplements have sufficient quality standardization and safety for public consumption research efforts have focused on development of reference materials for supplement manufacturing and monitoring high dose products have received research attention especially for emergency situations such as vitamin A deficiency in malnutrition of children and for women taking folate supplements to reduce the risk of breast cancer topic population monitoring in the United States the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Ann Haynes has investigated habits of using dietary supplements in context of total nutrient intakes from the diet in adults and children over the period of 1999 to 2012 use of multivitamins decreased and there was wide variability in the use of individual supplements among subgroups by age sex race ethnicity and educational status particular attention has been given to use of folate supplements by young women to reduce the risk of fetal neural tube defects topic clinical studies research initiatives to improve knowledge of the possible health benefits of supplementing with essential nutrients to lower disease risk have been extensive as examples just in 2017 were reviews on vitamin D providing evidence for protection against acute respiratory tract infections iron to determine ternal iron deficiency anemia and adverse effects on the fetus fully to lower the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease multiple supplements for which there was no evidence of benefit to lower risk of death cardiovascular disease or cancer at 2017 review indicated a rising incidence of liver injury from use of herbal and dietary supplements particularly those with steroids green tea extract or multiple ingredients topic absence of benefit the potential benefit of using essential nutrient dietary supplements to lower the risk of diseases has been refuted by findings of no effect or weak evidence in numerous clinical reviews such as for cardiovascular diseases cancer HIV or tuberculosis topic reporting bias a review of clinical trials registered at clinical trials.gov which would include both drugs and supplements reported that nearly half of completed trials were sponsored wholly or partially by industry this does not automatically imply bias but there is evidence that because of selective non-reporting results in support of a potential drug or supplement ingredient are more likely to be published than results that do not demonstrate a statistically significant benefit one review reported that fewer than half of the registered clinical trials resulted in publication in peer-reviewed journals topic future improving public information about use of dietary supplements involves investments in professional training programs further studies of population and nutrient needs expanding the database information enhancing collaborations between governments and universities and translating dietary supplement research into useful information for consumers health professionals scientists and policymakers future demonstration of efficacy from use of dietary supplements requires high quality clinical research using rigorously qualified products in compliance with established guidelines for reporting of clinical trial results eg consort guidelines equals equals see also

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