Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chlamydia | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy



let's say we have this gentleman right here and I've drawn out his genitalia this is the penis the testicle all the prostate the bladder and the rectum above the anus and we suspect that they might have chlamydia they may have contracted chlamydia how would we go through and diagnose that well there are a couple of tests that we could use right off the bat to aid in our diagnosis in order to do any of these we need to get a sample and so if this gentleman here is infected and we're suspecting chlamydia there may be some chlamydia reproducing and growing up his urinary tract and so what we need is a swab a sample so we would swab right here from the tip so let's imagine that there's a little bit of a sample here we've collected and we can use a couple of tests to figure out if chlamydia is there the first test we can use would help us look for chlamydia DNA so I'm going to draw a strand of DNA right here and as you might imagine there's going to be a little bit of that present on this cotton swab that we've collected here and we can't really see if there's any chlamydia if we've only got this small amount of DNA or this nucleic acid and so what we want to do is multiply the number of nucleic acid samples that we have from this cotton swab and once we do that we have enough genetic material or nucleic acid that we can actually detect with probes and this process of multiplying or amplifying the amount of nucleic acids we have from the chlamydia is done using a polymerase chain reaction maybe you've heard of PCR before and to use this test to diagnose chlamydia is called a nucleic acid nucleic acid amplification test a nucleic acid amplification test or it's also referred to as an N AAA T now this test is great because not only is it fast but it's also more sensitive so more sensitive I'll just write s and here more sensitive and more specific so I'll write s P more specific than other tests which means we're less likely to have false negatives if it's very sensitive and we're less likely to have false it's very specific so it makes sense that this test is the most common one that we use to diagnose chlamydia another test that can be used is a traditional Gram stain and we've talked about this before but the steps of a traditional Gram stain just involve taking the swab that we got a sample from over here and then we smear it on this microscopic slide and then we add a series of several drops so that would be one of the drops and then over time we would wash it and add this drop as well and this would help us visualize if the chlamydia bacteria are actually present here but the problem is that chlamydia because it's an intracellular organism it likes to stay within cells it's hard to see with a traditional Gram stain so this test isn't often used anymore another test that can be done is to take the sample from our swab and put it on this petri dish so I'll draw the sample being swab down this petri dish and we let it sit and grow for about five days so five days and after five days we would see that our petri dish here would start to grow some colonies of the chlamydia so I'll draw a couple of these colonies all over here and that's how we could figure out that this bug is growing in our patient but as you notice this test takes too long it takes too long for us to get a conclusive diagnosis which is why we've elected to use faster techniques nowadays so after we've made our diagnosis how do we treat chlamydia well the mainstay of treatment will be antibiotics antibiotics and to skip back a little we can use this and I forgot to label it here we can use this culture test or this culture to help us figure out what antibiotics would work best against chlamydia and we do that by smearing one antibiotic say down here and then a separate or a second antibiotic number two up there so when we look at our culture five days later we'll see that we're antibiotic to was there are some chlamydia colonies that are growing out so it doesn't look like that antibiotic works very well to kill off the chlamydia instead antibiotic number one which we put over here has a gap of colonies there are no colonies growing around where we smeared it so that's how we can figure out antibiotic sensitivity for the bacteria and do targeted therapy so I'll just write up here we can target sensitivity and then finally maybe we can catch a person before they get chlamydia and what can we do to help people prevent having the disease in the first place so steps for prevention and with any infectious disease the way to do that is to stop transmission so we need to stop the spreading of chlamydia from one infected person to another and remember there are several ways that we can transmit chlamydia mainly through sex and that can involve vaginal anal and oral sex for all three of these we can prevent transmission by using condoms so that way we can decrease the amount of direct contact between an infected and an uninfected person another thing we can use specifically for oral sex are dental dams with the same concept that we're decreasing direct contact and finally the last way we can transmit chlamydia is from an infected mother to her newborn child during childbirth and the way we prevent this is just by treating mom which is why all pregnant women in the United States are screened for chlamydia and gonorrhea on one of their first doctor's visits and the main reason behind this is because seventy percent of infected women have no symptoms which is kind of scary it means that if a woman is pregnant and then delivers that child it's very likely they can pass the infectious disease on to the baby without even knowing they had it which is why it's really important to be checked and treated early on

11 Comments

  1. Whata about kissing, lets say the woman perfom oral sex on a guy with chlamydia and she get it then she kisses another guy, does this guy gets it from the kiss

  2. Chlamydia dont grow in artificial culture medium. It can be either inoculated in yolk sac or can be growm in maccoy cell line

  3. I am a medical laboratory science student from Ghana. I kinda have a problem with how you illustrated how the antibiotic sensitivity test was done.

  4. What if you’re both infected and are both under treatment ? And still are having sex?

    My boyfriend ended up removing the condom without me knowing.

    While both of us are about 10 days post the treatment (got treated at different times)

    He so stupidity still went in.
    How high is the likelihood of out treatment still able to work ? (Only had sex once post the treatment)

  5. I couldn't understood put in petridish it will grow 5 day some colonies.ere any is there any growth
    Media?

  6. What do you know about Chlamydia?
    https://youtu.be/saYTv0c1dLw?t=3

  7. Can it be cured or are antibiotics going to create resistance in chlamydia?!

  8. What about frei 's test

  9. ANTIBIOTICC DOENST WORKK FOR THOS DISIASE FUCKK IDIOTTTTSSS

  10. I needed this. Perfectly illustrated. Your efforts are appreciated, Sir.

  11. i want rikettsia please

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