Coronavirus Is Our Future | Alanna Shaikh | TEDxSMU

Transcriber: Theresa Ranft
Reviewer: Peter van de Ven I want to lead here by talking a little bit about
my credentials to bring this up with you, because, quite honestly,
you really, really should not listen to any old person
with an opinion about COVID-19. (Laughter) So, I’ve been working
in global health for about 20 years, and my specific technical specialty
is in health systems and what happens when health systems
experience severe shocks. I’ve also worked
in global-health journalism. I’ve written about
global health and biosecurity for newspapers and web outlets, and I published a book a few years back about the major global health threats
facing us as a planet. I have supported and led
epidemiology efforts that range from evaluating
Ebola treatment centers to looking at transmission
of tuberculosis in health facilities and doing avian influenza preparedness. I have a master’s degree
in International Health. I’m not physician. I’m not a nurse. My specialty isn’t patient care
or taking care of individual people. My specialty is looking at populations
and health systems – what happens when diseases
move on the large level. If we’re ranking sources
of global-health expertise on a scale of 1 to 10 – 1 is some random person
ranting on Facebook, and 10 is the World Health Organization – I’d say you can probably
put me at like a 7 or an 8. So, keep that in mind as I talk to you. I’ll start with the basics here because I think that’s gotten lost in some of the media noise
around COVID-19. So, COVID-19 is a coronavirus, and coronaviruses
are a specific subset of virus, and they have some
unique characteristics as viruses. They use RNA instead of DNA
as their genetic material, and they’re covered in spikes
on the surface of the virus, and they use those spikes to invade cells. Those spikes are the corona
in coronavirus. COVID-19 is known as a novel coronavirus because, until December,
we’d only heard of six coronaviruses. COVID-19 is the seventh. It’s new to us, it just had its gene sequencing,
it just got its name – that’s why it’s novel. If you remember SARS –
severe acute respiratory syndrome – or MERS – Middle East
respiratory syndrome, those were coronaviruses, and they’re both called
respiratory syndromes because that’s what coronaviruses do. They go for your lungs. Don’t make you puke, they don’t make you bleed
from the eyeballs, they don’t make you hemorrhage,
they head for your lungs. COVID-19 is no different. It causes a range of respiratory symptoms that go from stuff
like a dry cough and a fever all the way out to fatal viral pneumonia. And that range of symptoms
is one of the reasons it’s actually been so hard
to track this outbreak. Plenty of people get COVID-19, but so gently, their symptoms are so mild that they don’t even go
to a health care provider. They don’t register in the system. Children, in particular,
have it very easy with COVID-19, which is something
we should all be grateful for. Coronaviruses are zoonotic, which means that they transmit
from animals to people. Some coronaviruses, like COVID-19,
also transmit person to person. The person-to-person ones
travel faster and travel farther, just like COVID-19. Zoonotic illnesses
are really hard to get rid of because they have an animal reservoir. One example is avian influenza, where we can abolish it
in farmed animals, in turkeys, in ducks, but it keeps coming back every year
because it’s brought to us by wild birds. You don’t hear a lot about it because avian influenza
doesn’t transmit person to person, but we have outbreaks in poultry farms
every year all over the world. COVID-19 most likely skipped
from animals into people at a wild animal market in Wuhan, China. Now for the less basic parts. This is not the last major outbreak
we’re ever going to see. There’s going to be more outbreaks,
and there’s going to be more epidemics. That’s not a maybe; that’s a given. And it’s a result of the way
that we, as human beings, are interacting with our planet. Human choices are driving us
into a position where we’re going to see more outbreaks. Part of that is about climate change
and the way a warming climate makes the world more hospitable
to viruses and bacteria. But it’s also about the way we’re pushing
into the last wild spaces on our planet. When we burn and plow
the Amazon rain forest so that we can have
cheap land for ranching, when the last of the African bush
gets converted into farms, when wild animals in China
are hunted to extinction, human beings come into contact
with wildlife populations that they’ve never come
into contact with before, and those populations
have new kinds of diseases: bacteria, viruses –
stuff we’re not ready for. Bats, in particular,
have a knack for hosting illnesses that can infect people. But they’re not
the only animals that do it. So as long as we keep making
our remote places less remote, the outbreaks are going to keep coming. We can’t stop the outbreaks
with quarantine or travel restrictions. That’s everybody’s first impulse: Let’s stop the people from moving,
let’s stop this outbreak from happening. But the fact is it’s really hard to get
a good quarantine in place. It’s really hard
to set up travel restrictions. Even the countries that have made
serious investments in public health, like the US and South Korea, can’t get that kind of restriction
in place fast enough to actually stop an outbreak instantly. There’s logistical reasons for that,
and there’s medical reasons. If you look at COVID-19, right now, it’s seems
like it could have a period where you’re infected
and show no symptoms that’s as long as 24 days. So people are walking around
with this virus showing no signs. They’re not going to get quarantined. Nobody knows they need quarantining. There’s also some real costs
to quarantine and to travel restrictions. Humans are social animals, and they resist when you try
to hold them into place and when you try to separate them. We saw in the Ebola outbreak that as soon as you put
a quarantine in place, people start trying to evade it. Individual patients, if they know
there’s a strict quarantine protocol, may not go for health care because they’re afraid
of the medical system, or they can’t afford care, and they don’t want to be separated
from their family and friends. Politicians, government officials, when they know they’re going
to get quarantined, if they talk about outbreaks and cases, may conceal real information for fear of triggering
a quarantine protocol. And, of course, these kinds
of evasions and dishonesty are exactly what makes it so difficult
to track a disease outbreak. We can get better at quarantines
and travel restrictions, and we should. But they’re not our only option, and they’re not our best option
for dealing with these situations. The real way for the long haul
to make outbreaks less serious is to build the global health system to support core health-care functions
in every country in the world so that all countries, even poor ones, are able to rapidly identify and treat
new infectious diseases as they emerge. China’s taken a lot of criticism
for its response to COVID-19. But the fact is, What if COVID-19
had emerged in Chad, which has 3.5 doctors
for every 100,000 people? What if it had emerged
in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which just released its last
Ebola patient from treatment? The truth is countries like this
don’t have the resources to respond to an infectious disease, not to treat people and not to report on it fast enough
to help the rest of the world. I led an evaluation of Ebola
treatment centers in Sierra Leone. And the fact is that local doctors in Sierra Leone
identified the Ebola crisis very quickly. First as a dangerous,
contagious hemorrhagic virus, and then as Ebola itself. But having identified it,
they didn’t have the resources to respond. They didn’t have enough doctors
or hospital beds, and they didn’t have enough information
about how to treat Ebola or how to implement infection control. Eleven doctors died
in Sierra Leone of Ebola. The country only had 120
when the crisis started. By way of contrast, Dallas Baylor Medical Center
has more than 1,000 physicians on staff. These are the kinds
of inequities that kill people. First, they kill the poor people
when the outbreaks start, and then they kill people
all over the world when the outbreaks spread. If we really want
to slow down these outbreaks and minimize their impact, we need to make sure
that every country in the world has the capacity to identify
new diseases, treat them, and report about them
so they can share information. COVID-19 is going to be
a huge burden on health systems. I’m not going to talk
about death rates in this talk because, frankly, nobody can agree
on the COVID-19 death rates right now. But one number we can agree on is that about 20% of people
infected with COVID-19 are going to need hospitalization. Our US medical system
can just barely cope with that. But what’s going to happen in Mexico? COVID-19 has also revealed
some real weaknesses in our global health supply chains. Just-in-time ordering LEAN systems
are great when things are going well, but in a time of crisis, what it means
is we don’t have any reserves. If a hospital or a country
runs out of face masks or personal protective equipment, there’s no big warehouse full of boxes
that we can go to get more. You have to order more from the supplier,
wait for them to produce it, and you have to wait for them to ship it,
generally, from China. That’s a time lag at a time
when it’s most important to move quickly. If we’d been perfectly
prepared for COVID-19, China would have identified
the outbreak faster. They would have been ready
to provide care to infected people without having to build new buildings. They would have shared
honest information with citizens so that we didn’t see these crazy rumors
spreading on social media in China. And they would have shared information
with global health authorities so that they could start reporting
to national health systems and getting ready
for when the virus spread. National health systems
would then have been able to stockpile the protective
equipment they needed and train health care providers
on treatment and infection control. We’d have science-based protocols
for what to do when things happen, like cruise ships have infected patients. And we’d have real information
going out to people everywhere, so we wouldn’t see embarrassing,
shameful incidents as xenophobia, like Asian-looking people getting attacked
on the street in Philadelphia. But even with all that in place,
we would still have outbreaks. The choices we’re making
about how we occupy this planet make that inevitable. As far as we have an expert consensus
on COVID-19, it’s this: here in the US and globally, it’s going to get worse
before it gets better. We’re seeing cases of human transmission that aren’t from returning travel, that are just happening
in the community. And we’re seeing people
infected with COVID-19 when we don’t even know
where the infection came from. Those are signs of an outbreak
that’s getting worse, not an outbreak that’s under control. It’s depressing, but it’s not surprising. Global health experts, when they talk
about the scenario of new viruses, this is one of the scenarios
that they look at. We all hoped we’d get off easy. But when experts talk
about viral planning, this is the kind of situation and the way
they expect the virus to move. I want to close here
with some personal advice. Wash your hands! Wash your hands a lot! I know you already wash your hands a lot
because you’re not disgusting. But wash your hands even more. Set up cues and routines in your life
to get you to wash your hands. Wash your hands every time
you enter and leave a building. Wash your hands when you go in
and come out of a meeting. Get rituals there
based around handwashing. Sanitize your phone. You touch that phone with your dirty,
unwashed hands all the time. I know you take it
into the bathroom with you. (Laughter) So, sanitize your phone and consider not using it
as often in public. Maybe TikTok and Instagram
could be home things only? Don’t touch your face. Don’t rub your eyes. Don’t bite your fingernails. Don’t wipe your nose
on the back of your hand. I mean, don’t do that anyway
because it’s gross. (Laughter) Don’t wear a face mask. Face masks are for sick people
and health care providers. If you’re sick, your face mask holds in
all your coughing and sneezing and protects the people around you. And if you’re a health care provider, your face mask is one tool in a set of tools called
personal protective equipment, that you’re trained to use
so you can give patient care and not get sick yourself. If you’re a regular, healthy person
wearing a face mask, it’s just making your face sweaty. (Laughter) Leave the face masks in stores for the doctors and the nurses
and the sick people. If you think you have
symptoms of COVID-19, stay home, call your doctor for advice. If you’re diagnosed with COVID-19, remember, it’s generally very mild. And if you’re a smoker, right now is the best
possible time to quit smoking. I mean, if you’re a smoker, right now is always the best
possible time to quit smoking. But if you’re a smoker
and you’re worried about COVID-19, I guarantee that quitting
is absolutely the best thing you can do to protect yourself
from the worst impacts of COVID-19. COVID-19 is scary stuff at a time when pretty much
all of our news feels like scary stuff. And there’s a lot of bad
but appealing options for dealing with it: panic, xenophobia,
agoraphobia, authoritarianism, oversimplified lies that make us think that hate and fury and loneliness
are the solution to outbreaks. But they’re not,
they just make us less prepared. There’s also a boring
but useful set of options that we can use in response to outbreaks, things like improving health care,
here and everywhere; investing in health infrastructure
and disease surveillance so that we know
when the new diseases come; building health systems
all over the world; looking at strengthening our supply chains so they’re ready for emergencies; and better education, so we’re capable
of talking about disease outbreaks and the mathematics of risk without just blind panic. We need to be guided by equity here because in this situation, like so many, equity is actually
in our own self-interest. So, thank you so much
for listening to me today, and can I be the first one to tell you: wash your hands
when you leave the theater. (Applause)


  1. Uhhh a warm planet is absolutely not more hospitable to viruses. She just dropped back to a 2 for me….

  2. it sounds super globalist…

  3. I’m a smoker but of cannabis not tobacco. Does anyone know if this is also a risk?

  4. It's all BS. How does a flu epidemic trigger a market and economic crash worldwide? It's a false flag..this whole thing is engineered to do this. Ask yourselves….Do you know anyone personally who has come down with or been diagnosed with this virus since it's rise and disappearance from China? Only a few 'famous' people who have come out publicly saying they had it, which I doubt. Nobody I know through my 6 degrees of separation in the world has it. WTF? China is back to work as usual, but the media is not reporting it. They seem to be over it, why aren't we? Something STINKS.

  5. What makes him so sure of more outbreaks?

  6. She s part of 201 event

  7. The basis of understanding the disease is all wrong. Things haven't changed from the time since Luis Pastueir told the world that disease are caused by bacteria and world still believes that. May be this is not correct. Bacteria and virus are good, they scavange the toxic in the body and they are not there in your body as soon as the toxins are not there in the body. So happy autophagy.

  8. Animals extinction is a global thing…

  9. What about the people we saw just falling down in Wuhan Province? She should answer what caused that scenario.

  10. It's been so difficult to track in the U.S. because our government restricted testing. She lost all credibly after saying "even countries who have made serious investments in public health like the U.S. and South Korea.' The U.S. are you kidding me? Italy just sent the U.S. 500,000 test kits. That is how bad our system is. Norway warned it's citizens to come home in particular from countries with substandard health systems like the United States. South Korea single payer system had a high rate of testing and social distancing putting stop to the spread.

  11. Even with your credentials you have a Boss

  12. Ina Garten has a cousin apparently.

  13. This is laughable

  14. EXCEPT: Older people going out in public, SHOULD help shield their lungs from diseases.

  15. Pretty sure I heard someone cough at about 2:15

  16. I can hear people coughing in the background. Wow

  17. Great advice. Should be broadcast to the entire world

  18. Excellent commentary by a uniquely qualified individual.

  19. People in the west are animals lover. They give French kisses to dogs and cats.

  20. Looks like a lady Q from impractical jokers

  21. The CDC and WHO have Zero Credibility! And that's their fault. To expect the Public to believe them now, along with Pinnochio Politicians and Presstitutes is Beyond reasonable!

  22. New world order agenda
    JESUS CHRIST is coming soon
    Repent and Be Baptise in the name of JESUS CHRIST 🙏🏿

  23. It will not be our future. Pretty sure there will be a vaccine for it in about a year or so. So yea, it will be a part of life for the next year, but it will not continue. What I'm worried about is our economy. I am wondering if we will fully recover from this, or if millions of people will lose their life savings.

  24. she is a health specialist and yet she looks pretty un healthy. hummmm

  25. Plan-demic and economic sabotage more like it.

  26. COVID-19 is the disease, not the virus, according to the WHO definition. The virus is the SARS-COV-2…

  27. WE'RE DOOMED, now that we all watched this video we're going to be inundated with recommendations for "Strange Answers to the Psychopath Test" 😔

  28. Solutions to these problems always seem to be to create some new systems or spending more money on this and that but never the real problem, our selfish behavior. How about we introduce laws to protect our environment and the wilderness? perhaps we need to accept that we cannot keep growing in population to a rate that is unsustainable and we start dealing with that problem now! how about banning these horrible markets that treat exotic animals (which many are endangered already) in the most horrible and unsanitary ways? how about teaching in school to respect and protect nature and other species that coexist in this planet? and yes of course how about we stop treating people as a source to which industries extract wealth from and have the government build safety nets and a humane health system that works for everyone? when will we learn …..

  29. Zoonotic? Nope.


  31. People are coughing in the crowd, this is horrendous spreading the disease as she talks about it.

  32. This lady so called expert doesnt know what she is talking.

  33. If it started in the USA it would have been worse. All gov’ts hide info but Chinese are group motivated Americans more individual.

  34. So. She's an epidemiologist – a disease detective plotting vectors

  35. Turn all of this over to private companies. I have no faith in government agencies accomplishing anything. Trump is doing a good job because he is a business man beholden to no one. In politics where there is money to be made the contracts are given to supporters, family members and good old boys (and girls) networks. For Pete's sake do not start any more "foundations." I hope people have finally figured out that scam.

  36. To reduce infection and death, the demographic group most susceptible can be warned (voluntarily) to quarantine themselves. The government can pass a law requiring all employers to give these employees the option to take off work for 6-8 weeks with no penalty and for creditors to extend their grace period the same length. The only people likely to become very ill and die would be the people in the susceptible demographic group who refuse to take precautions. This way our communities would not have to shut down and the vulnerable would be protected.

  37. Anyone else think she looks like an older Kiernan Shipka?

  38. She says, "The health system has to be made stronger." That means money going for war and weapons has to be redirected to the health system.

  39. You ain’t got no future

  40. It s a Democrat's 'hoax'.

  41. It's amazing how she knows and has access to all that is needed to cause a pandemic while encouraging you the public to refrain from wearing a face mask and eye protection or glasses whilst in the midst of a pandemic which is being caused by an AIRBORNE virus which attaches itself to and infects receptor cells found in the mucus membrane and/or respiratory system of your body and simply encourages you to wash your hands. It's true that hand washing would decrease the amount of viruses from the skin surface of your hands but when dealing with an AIRBORNE virus, hand washing cannot be compared with the proper use of eye protection, a face mask satuated with COLLOIDAL SILVER (10ppm) as the UK military designed and the nebulization of this same colloidal silver (10ppm) solution which scientists from different parts of the world who worked on Corona viruses and others has shown in their studies. So what do I do? I bathe (not only wash my hands), use my face mask whenever I have to go in public (like the Koreans are doing, who by the way have managed to severely slow down their country's infection rate due to this mandatory protocol) along with other things, and nebulize up to three times a day with colloidal silver solution 10ppm. PLEASE NOTE that this comment is not intended to take the place of the advice of your health care provider. It is the opinion of an individual who is not recognized by the W.H.O. as a medical doctor. It is simply my personal experience, which I, in the interest of good will to humanity, hope may be an encouragement to all readers.

  42. It is fake. They're just trying to control the population to see how they will respond.

  43. Coronavirus is your future. Not mine !

  44. i just heard someone cough from the audience at 2:22

  45. 5G and Covid19 appear around the same time, not to worry though as we can trust our governors to tell us the truth that's it a mere coincidence!

  46. New evidence shows the wild animal market in WuHan China not the origin place to spread the virus. Staffs who still work/stay in that market are never get infect,and said those gambler looks like sick people came from outside before December last year,and then virus outbreak.

  47. Why didn’t this commie mention is was a man made virus?

  48. Wonder what Yoshihiro Kawaoka has to say about all this XD

  49. "Divide and Conquer" As the Late Russian Dictator Nikita Khrushchev said over 50years ago ." We will take over YOUR country and Never Fire a shot" Has it dawned on anyone that this pandemic is a global elitists and the uber wealthy way of enabling China, to take its revenge on the world mainly U.S for the new trade deal it had to accept? What a way to level the playing field. How can this generation of such intelligent and innovative humans not see this for what it is ,a way to show our advisories how truly feeble we have become. This is the way you demoralize destroy and infiltrate a democratic nation of free and brave humans. The more we hide the more they ride our freedoms.

  50. LOL, you guys… just wait until you see what happens next 😉

  51. Start asking people you know if they know of or know someone who has COVID19. I'll bet none of you can honestly tell me you know someone with the virus. This might be a farce or distraction.

  52. Very informative but missing very important info. Covid19 is not a mild condition as she said, for many is a dead sentence, even people without previous compromised immune system. In my country, Spain, people as young as 38 are dying from it. A few days ago, a policeman, today a nurse 52. Do not understimate this disease, please. Better be safe. I also disagree about masks. Yes, priority are medical staff and sick people, but because you do not know if you are carrying the disease, you may be actually passing it wherever you go. My recommendation, as a Public Health Professor: stay home for the sake of others and for your own life. That way masks can be used by medical staff and sick people. In Spain masks are gone, even for medical staff! Also, avoid any gatherings, even small ones. Forget about resturants, etc. for a few weeks.
    This will pass also, but the more you seriously collaborate the better for all.

  53. Not it is not. We haven't really been in this a month yet and someone thinks it's our future.

  54. Those masks. Those f-king masks!

  55. Avian flu from birds my bu**, more like from airplanes and jets… chemtrails are not a conspiracy!!!

  56. She sounds contagious

  57. Overpopulation makes more disease. Stop ucking so Much. Just have one kid

  58. Wow……says she's a 7 or 8. Sorry person I don't know. I don't have to believe what you say or listen. When someone prefaces their statement with an appeal to their own credibility…that's when you know they're about to sell you something you don't want or need.

  59. We don't get to choose when we die even though we should do what we can to prevent it. We do get to choose what or who we put our faith in when we do make that journey. As for me I am older and have chronic respiratory failure already. I have been on Oxygen for several years and have other underlying health problems. I have had a long time to think about it and I am sure I want my faith in Jesus Christ for my passage.

  60. 🤔

  61. 2:20 Person Coughing: 0_0 oh no

  62. Face masks work. Wear them.

  63. Asymptomatic children could in theory carry this virus and infect older adults.

  64. As soon as she said mexico i got worried, im mexican and our president just announced that we will not have any covid-19 tests, please, help us

  65. She forgot to mention to wash your hands after aking a dump

  66. Sounds very political….hmmmm climate change maniac…how about interviewing the Ecologist, who really knows about our ecology! Fear monger! That's sounds Agenda 21!

  67. What about “Social distancing” you big genius

  68. Best information yet ty again u amazing lady

  69. "Coronavirus Is Our Future"

    So much for the children.

  70. Gtfoh, lady. You only have a masters. I want to hear from a PHD, minimum.

  71. All I could think about was that as she’s giving this lecture on the corona virus there is someone coughing in the audience lol

  72. She dresses like han solo

  73. You must wear a mask in public coz you never know whether or not the sick ppl wear it, especially there are Covid19 patients who got no symptoms

  74. the future of life is death.

  75. Help. I need to write economic loss suggestions from the video.

  76. Great talk!

  77. She must have made straight A's in school. But what's the use of knowing so much if what she knows ain't so?

  78. What about making mask available for everyone? Would it be easier and faster than building isolation centers?
    One thing I NEVER get is that when the virus is transmittable before symptoms are shown, and when we treat ourselves in quarantine like if we are sick, but we are advised NOT to wear mask unless necessary — Human cannot avoid social contact eventually, I still think mask should be available for everyone.

  79. looks like a man sounds like a woman ,

  80. These experts are the ones who released this upon us and our children

  81. 2:21 Wait! Does that girl just cough?

  82. Thank you

  83. Maybe stop talking and start setting up such a world health system when you’re a “7 to 8”.

  84. grain of salt

  85. 😿
    There Are Now 247,688 Confirmed Cases Of Wuhan Coronavirus "China Virus" Including 10,194 Fatalities – 14,429 Cases In The US, 228 Confirmed Deaths!

  86. bio weapon from Hubei racoon city bio weapons lab… this is to push mandatory vaccines and microchipping and cashless now I guarantee it

  87. look up id2020…. proof they combine chips with vaccines to start a global database which will also be tied into a new cashless crypto,,,, new world order coming, un agenda 21 is full force by 2030 they want 500 milion people alive and that's all….

  88. I think my mom might have cornavirus. I hope not though. Please pray for her. She refuses to go to the doctor and she lives hours away from me. Please pray

  89. We all die. People die every year of a virus. Covid-19 can, and has, killed people. One way or another, you will die. In the end, we all die, and everyone fears death. Solution? Find something to live for until life takes you away in any way.

  90. That's why we are in this mess. China tried covering it up – till it got out of their control! We can say or assume it came from animals, but you cannot say positively it wasn't man-made. People- scientists are only guessing. We can send people up in space, transplant hearts, but can't figure out how to keep a Nation safe from a spreading disease? That's the saddest part of it all 🙁

  91. No Content, just common sense and bad advice. Buy Military Masks, full face – with good NBC cartridges rated for virus / biowarfare.
    wear gloves. Reject fatalism. The Wuhan Flu can not be allowed to succeed. Reject Communism and defeat the China Virus.

  92. Why didn’t she mention Most obvious casue, the original sin which is the absolute easiest we can do? Don’t eat the animals to begin with!

  93. Another expert on absolutely nothing…

  94. WHO at 10 ahaha

  95. If only this virus a originated in chad or congo!! They dont send millions of people abroad. They probably would not have covered it up and just accepted help. China's response was not only bad but criminal negligence. They must be held acocuntable

  96. I was curious about how many people attending this talk. Is it okay to gather so many people in a place during the outbreak?

  97. Noble Quran , the. Book of Allah
     Al-Baqara (The Cow) – 2:155 
    [Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere, – 2:155 

    Who say, when afflicted with calamity: "To Allah We belong, and to Him is our return":- – 2:156  

    They are those on whom (Descend) blessings from Allah, and Mercy, and they are the ones that receive guidance. – 2:157]

  98. A major MRSA outbreak will make COVID 19 look like the sniffles. We haven't seen anything yet!

  99. why does she call the virus covid-19 though. that's the name of the disease it entails, isn't it? name of the virus is something like SARS-CoV-2?

  100. From Caregiver School, we were taught to wash hands by thoroughly scrubbing the hand surface with finger nails while lathering. As a Food Handler, the training was to sing , "Happy Birthday!" twice in our heads which indicates a full minute of hand washing. Same principle with whatever Industry. God bless us all! May we all survive this Pandemic. Stay healthy.

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